How to plant raspberries in the spring
Planting raspberries is a responsible process on which the quality and quantity of the future crop depends. This article will discuss when to plant seedlings in open ground, the main planting methods and step-by-step instructions for performing the procedure at home.
Optimal landing dates by region
Planting seedlings must be done when weather conditions allow the young plant not to die from sudden changes in temperature. Depending on the region, the timing of planting varies significantly, so consider the recommended period of the procedure for each region in more detail.
In outskirts of Moscow
In the midland, in the suburbs, it is recommended to plant raspberries in the fall, so that the plant grows cold, and in the next season, immediately after thawing the snow, enter the active stage of vegetation to grow additional roots. Planting dates are within 2 autumn months - from September to October - depending on weather conditions. Thanks to the autumn planting, the plant has good immunity and quickly adapts to temperature fluctuations.
In the Leningrad region
In the northwestern regions, which include the Leningrad Region, weather conditions allow both autumn and spring planting. In autumn, the air temperature drops gradually, so the plants take root well to stable cold weather; seedlings are planted at this time from early September to mid-October. In the spring, raspberries should be planted in open ground after the soil has warmed up a little, depending on weather conditions, this period falls on the second half of April or the end of May.
It is better to plant raspberries in Siberia in the spring, but autumn planting is also possible, provided relatively warm, stable and dry weather at the end of summer. Autumn planting is practiced in the first half of September, paying particular attention to preventive measures that will protect delicate plants from damage by fungi during rains and freezing, in the event of sudden frosts.
Spring planting is more preferable because it is carried out in stable weather from the end of April to mid-May, allowing you to create favorable conditions for planting a plant in open ground and ensure good survival of the root system.
In the Urals
Ural weather conditions are compared with Siberian ones, however, local residents usually plant raspberries in the spring, which allows seedlings to quickly begin.
The procedure takes place at the end of April or beginning of May, when the air temperature stabilizes.
In the Rostov region
In this region, it is possible to plant raspberry seedlings in autumn and spring.if weather conditions permit. As for the timing of the procedure, the autumn is carried out in late September, and the spring - in late April or early May.
Methods of planting in open ground
There are several ways to plant raspberries in open ground, each of them can be used at home, however, subject to a number of nuances that should be considered.
Usually for planting raspberries on the site, young seedlings purchased in the store are chosen. Such annual plants are already strong enough to exist separately from the parent plants, because they have a well-branched root system and normally take root when planting in open ground.
- The main advantages of the method of planting seedlings on the site are:
- simplicity of the procedure;
- growth rate of a young plant;
- lack of hassle for growing seedlings or processing cuttings;
- early entry into fruiting.
- The disadvantages of this method of landing:
- the risk of acquiring low-quality planting material;
- the possibility of freezing young roots during autumn planting.
Successfully growing raspberries from seeds is possible only if there is confidence in the quality of planting material.
Important! Seeds for planting a plant should be purchased only in specialized stores, in sealed factory packaging, which contain detailed information about the variety, the preferred growing region and the characteristics of planting.
Sowing seeds for seedlings is practiced both in spring and autumn, however, spring planting involves growing in pots placed in a warm room. Only at the end of May young plants can be planted in open ground for further cultivation. Sow seeds should be several pieces in one pot in order to further transship the plant along with an earthen lump into the planting pit.
Landing immediately in open ground, which is carried out in the fall, is also possible. Winter planting of seeds allows the planting material to germinate in early spring and actively begin to build up the root system, so that before the end of the season it becomes a full-fledged plant. If you plant seeds before winter, you must provide shelter that will not let them die in severe frosts.
Crops on top are covered with a layer of humus (about 5 cm), which in the spring will serve as fertilizer and stimulate the growth of young seedlings. Seeds are sown in grooves or holes, the depth of sowing seeds should be 0.5 cm.
- The main advantages of planting raspberries seeds are:
- simplicity and speed of the procedure;
- cost savings, because it is not required to purchase expensive seedlings.
- The disadvantages of this method of landing:
- the difficulty of caring for young seedlings;
- long growing period before fruiting;
- the possibility of freezing seeds.
Cuttings - a method of propagation of raspberries, which is carried out by gardeners to obtain new plants and expand raspberries.Planting cuttings in open ground has a number of nuances and is not always suitable for beginning gardeners as a simple way of propagating bushes.
- The main advantages of planting raspberries by the method of cuttings are:
- the presence of a large number of shoots that can be used for reproduction;
- the presence of different methods of obtaining cuttings.
- The disadvantages of the method include:
- the need for processing planting material;
- the need to land in a greenhouse with subsequent transplantation;
- the difficulty of leaving to complete rooting;
- risk of damage to the roots during transplantation.
Did you know? Russia is the world leader in raspberry cultivation; annually about 200 thousand tons of these berries are harvested in the country.
How to plant: a walkthrough
The development of the bush and its productivity depends on the correctness of the procedure for planting raspberry seedlings, so it is imperative to carefully study not only the instructions for planting bushes, but also pay attention to the particulars of choosing a place for growing, preparing the soil and seedlings for planting.
Seat selection and seedling preparation
Raspberry is a light-loving plant, so seedlings are placed on a site with direct sunlight and the absence of shading. A flat area or a plot with a slight slope (3-5 °) is optimal for raspberry cultivation, so all parts of the plant will be lit up and warmed up to the maximum.
Raspberries should not be planted in lowlands, hollows or quarries where there is a risk of flooding and a high level of humidity is constantly maintained. In such places, plant growth slows down, fungal diseases develop, and productivity decreases.Groundwater should not come closer than 1.5 m to the surface of the soil, otherwise the root system will be constantly in a waterlogged state, will begin to rot and die.
To mitigate the effect of strong winds on the raspberry, it is better to place protective plantings in the form of evergreen shrubs, low buildings or fences from the northern part of the site. Such a measure is necessary not only to protect raspberries from freezing in winter, but also for normal pollination of flowers by bees during the period of active flowering.
The soil in the raspberry should have a composition suitable for the normal development of plants. Soil is best to choose fertile and nutritious, with a light loose structure. It is optimal to plant bushes on sandy loam soils, loams, chernozems, gray forest, sod-podzolic soils, with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. It is categorically not recommended for planting raspberries to choose a site with swampy, calcareous, solonchak, dry sandy soil.
Did you know? Modern selection allows you to create new varieties of raspberries with an amazing color. So, there is yellow, red, black and even purple raspberry, which was bred in the United States as far back as 1896.
If you buy a quality seedling, special preparation for planting is not required. A young plant should have 2-3 strong shoots, a well-developed root system, with a long central root and a large number of smaller processes. If it is not planned to plant a seedling immediately after purchase, it is better to trick it so that the root system does not dry out.
Soil and hole preparation
The preparation of the raspberry planting site should be carried out in order to create an optimal water-air regime, remove weeds and provide the soil with nutrients that will stimulate good plant growth.
If you start preparing the site for planting raspberries in advance - you can sow siderat plants, which after cultivation are planted in the soil and left to enrich the soil with humus. If there are time limits, manure is applied in an amount of 40-50 t / ha.
Particular attention should be paid to ridding the territory of weed vegetation; wheatgrass, bindweed and thistle are considered very dangerous neighbors for raspberries. To quickly and without special labor costs to clear the site of weeds, continuous herbicides are used.
2 weeks before the planned date of planting, seedlings begin the preparation of holes. To do this, dig holes 50 cm in diameter and 40 cm in depth. In the process of digging the soil, the upper layer is separated from the lower one, which will then be used in a certain sequence.
Important! The period of raspberry planting after soil treatment with herbicides will depend on the drug used, so carefully read the instructions before performing the procedure.
A nutrient mixture is poured into the pit, consisting of:
- compost or humus - 10 kg;
- potassium sulfate - 50 g;
- wood ash - 400 g;
- granular superphosphate - 100 g.
Before planting seedlings in prepared pits, loosen the composition inside the holes. If planting is done in the fall, a 10-centimeter layer of fertile soil is recommended to be added to the holes. In order for the plants to grow well, they had enough free space for building additional fruit shoots, it is necessary to observe the planting scheme: between seedlings leave 50-70 cm, between rows - 1.5-1.8 m.
Landing should be done as follows:
- In the hole set a raspberry seedling, spread the roots in different directions.
- Sprinkle the roots with a topsoil (fertile), which remains after digging a hole.
- The soil should be poured until the pit is completely filled, and the replacement kidney rises 2–3 cm above the surface.
- Slightly compact the soil around the bush, make a shallow groove around the trunk circle and pour 5 liters of clean water at room temperature there.
- The area around the bush should be mulched with straw, sawdust or humus, a layer of 5 cm.
After raspberry planting, it is necessary to ensure high-quality and regular care, which will allow you to get stable large yields during the entire period of bush growth. First of all, after planting seedlings, they begin to garter young plants.
Important! Each year, raspberries should be tied in such a way that a distance of 10 cm is maintained between the shoots.
To do this, metal supports are installed along each row of raspberries - pillars at least 1.5 m high. Between the supports, a galvanized wire is pulled at a height of 1 m from the ground, to which raspberry shoots are tied with ropes made of natural fabric.
A year after the first garter, 2 more rows of wire are added to the supports: below, at a height of 30 cm from the ground (to tie down bent shoots for wintering), and above, at a height of 1.5 m (to tie up grown raspberry shoots). neat, remove old sick or dry shoots, annually trim the bush in the spring.
On each bush, no more than 7 of the strongest and most healthy stems are left, all the rest are removed under the root. Shrubs that have a well-developed root system and sufficiently active buds on the shoots are recommended to be trimmed at a height of 40 cm to stimulate the best growth of young shoots. Young bushes must be shortened at a height of 150 cm.
The soil around raspberry bushes should be loosened regularly to ensure an unhindered supply of oxygen to the roots and to avoid soil compaction, which is detrimental to raspberry. The raspberry root system is close to the soil surface, so the depth of cultivation should be no more than 8 cm between plants and up to 12 cm between rows.
Loosen the soil after each watering or rain. Watering the plant is actively necessary only during the period of heat and drought, in the spring additional soil moisture is not required. For irrigation use clean, well-maintained and warm water in an amount of 5 liters for each bush. Particular attention should be paid to autumn water-loading irrigation when preparing bushes for wintering.
Thus, planting raspberries at home is a simple procedure that any beginner gardener can do. To perform the procedure correctly, you must follow the recommendations that are described in detail in the article.