Gooseberry scab - how to get rid of: how to spray or treat
Fungal diseases are the most common ailments affecting agricultural plants. Due to the fact that the spores of the fungi are very small, they are easily picked up by the wind and spread over long distances, so it is not easy, but possible to protect the crops from the disease. Today we will focus on the fight against gooseberry scab.
What is gooseberry scab
Some gardeners often identify scab with powdery mildew, suggesting that these are two varieties of the same disease. Is this so, we will understand further.
Scab and powdery mildew: what is it, differences
Scab and powdery mildew are two types of fungal diseases. Perhaps this is the only thing that unites them, if we do not take into account the similarity in the signs of manifestation. Otherwise, these are different ailments.
Scab is caused by pathogenic microscopic fungi, actinomycetes (marsupials), and bacteria. They affect the surface tissues of leaves, fruits, flowers, shoots, tubers, covering them with brown spots, ulcers, pustules, and also causing peeling of the peel.A disease called powdery mildew is caused by microscopic ectoparasitic fungi from the order of erysiphous, or powdery mildew.When a plant is affected by fungi, a white powdery coating appears on the surface of leaves, fruits, shoots, like a cobweb - this is the name of the disease. This raid is mycelium
False powdery mildew has similar external manifestations of adversity, but it is caused by mushroom-like organisms - oomycetes.
Important! Sphere library — a genus of powdery mildew fungi, whose mycelium is initially white and then gradually darkens, becoming dark brown. Most likely, precisely because of this feature, scabs are often confused with powdery mildew by those gardeners who did not timely detect the problem.
Causes and signs of occurrence
Powdery mildew and scab occur under certain conditions.
For the first ailment, they are as follows:
- prolonged rains or high humidity (60–80%) at a temperature of + 15 ... + 27 ° С;
- frequent sharp temperature jumps;
- radical pruning to rejuvenate the culture;
- the soil is oversaturated with nitrogen;
- thickening of landings;
- the soil often dries up or moisture is constantly stagnating in it.
- soil moisture is greatly increased;
- high humidity and temperature above + 12 ° С;
- frequent dew, fog, rains;
- thickened planting;
- genetically similar plantings (gooseberry bushes do not alternate with other plants).
Powdery mildew gives itself out as a white coating, on top of which, after maturation of the spores, drops of liquid protrude. First of all, mycelium appears on young leaves and shoots near the surface of the earth.
Stage of flow of the sphere library
Powdery mildew has several stages of flow, differing in the affected area.
As already mentioned, the first signs of the disease appear on young shoots and leaves. It happens in the spring after flowering. Plaque at the beginning is very easy to erase.
Gradually, the mycelium spreads to the ovaries, berries, affecting more and more of the plant. The plaque is condensed: at the end it already resembles a piece of brown felt.
Due to lack of nutrients, the shoots begin to bend, their development stops, which often leads to their complete death. Leaves twist, become fragile. Berries with plaque do not grow, crack and fall.
Important! Without timely action for 2–3 years gooseberry bush affected by powdery mildew dies.
The scab also has several stages of progress, depending on the affected area.
Leaves are the first to suffer from this problem. They are covered with velvety spots located in the center of the leaf plate. When the spores mature, the spots increase in size and change color, becoming brown, sometimes resembling rust.
From the leaves the disease goes to the berries. Because of this, their shape is distorted, they crack, letting the disease in.
The shoots are the last to be affected. They also become stained, deform and slow down in growth. With a severe defeat, plants begin to die.
Preparation of tools and safety measures during processing
Before processing gooseberries against the disease, the tool does not need special preparation. If you are going to spray bushes with fungicides or other chemical compounds, then it is enough to prepare a spray bottle and a container for diluting the solution.
It should also be noted that personal protective equipment is required: a respirator, special safety glasses, gloves and a special suit. If treatment with folk remedies is planned, then it is enough to protect the hands and respiratory tract.If you need to trim the plant, you must definitely sharpen all garden tools so that the cut can be done quickly and accurately.
Gardeners are fighting the scab with both chemical and folk remedies. The first of them are considered the most effective, but have a number of features in use. The effectiveness of the latter is much weaker, because they are safer for health.
It is recommended to get rid of the disease with the help of fungicides only when its first signs appear. Due to the fact that the spread of fungal spores coincides with the growing season, it is advisable to use all the agents in early spring, as soon as the first leaves appear.
If the ailment is detected for the first time, then one treatment is enough. Otherwise, you should treat the bushes every week and a half (for details, see the drug's instructions). But you need to consider some factors.For example, if the past year was peak for the disease, then the frequency of treatment should be increased. In the absence of the disease or its slight manifestation, you can increase the interval between procedures.
- Copper sulfate. Mix 75 g of chopped laundry soap with 5000 ml of water. Stir thoroughly to dissolve the soap and add 20 g of copper sulfate. The resulting mixture should have a bluish tint.
- Topaz. It is diluted to the desired concentration according to the instructions. It is applied after flowering. If the disease is started, then you need to have time to process the bush before the appearance of flowers and at the end of flowering.
- Bordeaux mixture. It is recommended to fight with a 1% solution, to obtain which you need to combine 100 g of copper sulfate, the same amount of quicklime and 8000 ml of water. Components do not mix immediately. Sulphate is first bred in a liter of warm water in a container of wood, clay, copper or glass. In any other tank, lime is extinguished in the same volume of water. After that, the components are combined, and the desired solution is obtained.
Important! If the weather is dry, spraying is less common. When wet — vice versa.
It is also recommended to treat with folk remedies at the initial stage of the disease.
To obtain it, you need to mix the mullein with water in a ratio of 1: 3 and leave to brew for three days. The tool is used for spraying bushes.
In 10 liters of warm water, 1000 g of ash is bred. Everything is thoroughly mixed and left for a week. Gooseberries are sprayed with the agent every 2 days.
It is good in combination with a soapy solution.It is prepared as follows: 50 g of ground soap are diluted in 10 liters of water. To it is added 40 g of soda. The solution is sprayed before flowering and at the end.
Manganese sulfate is most often used as foliar top dressing, which is also a preventive measure against a number of diseases that develop due to a lack of manganese soil. Scab also belongs to them.
Did you know? Scab is also a human disease, which is one of the oldest known to medicine.It can attack animals as well. The causative agent of the disease was discovered only in 1837 — Prior to this, the causes of its occurrence were not known.
A 1.5–2% solution is prepared, with which the culture is processed during the growing season — once every 3-4 weeks.
Prevention of mold on gooseberries
Knowing why a disease occurs, it is much easier to take measures to prevent it. And since the attack can significantly spoil the crop, it is better to prevent it in a timely manner. To do this, simple preventive measures are carried out.
Processing bushes in spring and autumn
In order to minimize the risk of infection of the culture, every spring, before awakening the kidneys, it is necessary to process the plantings with 7% urea solution. The liquid should well moisten all parts of the bush, as well as the soil under it.
In autumn, when the leaves fall, you need to remove dry leaves from the site, dig a trunk around the trunk and also treat the plants with urea. Besides, fungicides should be regularly treated in early spring and after leaf fall.
Agrotechnical methods of struggle
An excellent prevention will be the observance of gooseberry agrotechnical rules:
- regular weeding, complete destruction of weeds and other plant litter (burning);
- timely pruning of diseased shoots and other parts of the plant;
- thinning bushes so that air freely passes between branches;
- regular watering;
- timely destruction of pests on the site;
- compliance with the feeding schedule;
- copper-based treatment.
Did you know? Gooseberry in english — gooseberry, which literally means "goose berry." But even the English themselves do not know why the berry was associated with geese.
For these reasons, you should always adhere to the recommendations for caring for the culture and take preventive measures to prevent the emergence of adversity.