Gooseberry Cossack: characteristics, features of cultivation and reproduction
Gooseberries in Russia have been known since ancient times. It was mainly grown on the territory of monasteries, but over time, the bush "settled" in the sections of secular residents. He has not lost his popularity now. Gooseberry berries are very healthy and tasty, and breeders are breeding new varieties to "facilitate" the agricultural technology of the crop. Already there are varieties with a small number of thorns on the shoots and resistant to such a common disease of fruit crops like powdery mildew. Variety Cossack is a vivid representative of the excellent achievements of breeders.
The appearance of this variety has been worked since 1990, Koveshnikova E.Yu., Zvyagina TS and Sergeev K.D. The work was carried out in the All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture. I.V. Michurina. And already in 2006, Cossack received an entry in the registry, with permission to grow in the Central Black Earth region.
Cossack is a berry plant of the mid-early ripening period. The average yield is from 2 to 4 kg per bush per season. With high winter hardiness and good tolerance to dry periods. It has a strong immunity to powdery mildew.
The bushes are not too tall, 100 cm tall, very sprawling, with medium density. The shoots are not thick, straight or slightly curved, the spike is average. Leaves - medium-large, with three or five lobes, green, slightly bent at the edges.
Berries weighing 2.5 to 4 g, the skin is thin, the color is from dark plum to almost black, the surface is covered with a waxy coating. The form is oval or slightly conical. The taste is dessert, sweet with a sour note. Pulp - dense, juicy, with a moderate amount of seeds. Fruits can be transported over long distances without losing their presentation.
Did you know? Catherine the Great, having first tried gooseberry jam, awarded the cook a ring with an emerald.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The main advantages of the variety are:
- good resistance to powdery mildew;
- winter hardiness;
- tolerates drought;
- high self-fertility.
- But there are also disadvantages:
- strong spreading of the bush;
- the presence of thorns on the shoots;
- sometimes berries are minced.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
Cossack is characterized as a resistant variety to frosty winters and short dry periods. For the winter, there is no special need to warm the bushes. He, like other gooseberry varieties, does not like the waterlogging of the soil.
Therefore, it can easily tolerate a dry summer, but in the active growing season, you should not leave the plant for a long period without watering - this can negatively affect the future harvest.
Productivity and fruiting
Fruiting begins in the second year after planting. Ripening occurs in late July or early August. Productivity is high, according to some reviews of gardeners, up to 7 kg per bush.
To obtain a consistently high yield, it is necessary to correctly plant gooseberry bushes. To do this, you need to know when, where and how to land.
Experienced gardeners recommend planting gooseberries in late September - early October. So the plant will have more time to root. But there are positive reviews on planting and early spring, the main thing is to catch the kidneys before the swelling.
Choosing the right place
The site should be flat, a slight slope is allowed. Gooseberries will not bear fruit well in places where groundwater fits above 1.5 m above the ground. Soil - medium acidity. It is worth digging the ground well, getting rid of weeds and their roots. Bushes should receive a lot of sunshine and be protected from the influence of northerly winds.
Selection and preparation of planting material
When choosing seedlings, you must carefully examine them. The bark should be intact, the shoots should be elastic, the buds should not be dry, slightly swollen. Optimal for planting are two-year-old shoots with three (minimum) strong shoots. You should buy planting material in specialized farms, as they offer varieties suitable for your climate.
Important! The age of the shoots is determined as follows. Direct and light green - the first year of life, with one branch - the second, with two - the third year, etc.
The planting process is quite simple:
- First you need to dig holes with a depth of two bayonets shovels, and the distance between the holes should be at least a meter.
- Pour two glasses of humus, sand, wood ash and complex mineral fertilizers into the recesses.
- Water well, wait until the water is absorbed.
- Place the seedlings strictly perpendicularly into the pits, straighten the roots, and compact. Pour a small mound on top so that the root neck is in the ground.
- Around the future bush make a hole with sides, pour water.
- Pour the mulching layer of peat, humus or sawdust.
- Pinch the shoots from above by about 15 cm.
Features of seasonal care
Depending on the season, gooseberries need some care. A plant can grow and bear fruit without “support”, but it will not last long. Bushes need to be trimmed, the soil should be fertilized and watered; preventive treatments must be carried out to avoid damage from diseases and harmful insects.
For full development, a plant needs a strong root system, which requires constant access of oxygen. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly cultivate the soil around the bush. This procedure is done at least 2 times a month. Weeding should be carried out deep - weedy vegetation is extracted along with the roots. The earth under the bush is mulched, this will protect the roots from drying out in the summer and from freezing in the winter.The soil under the gooseberry can not be waterlogged. In dry periods, the plant should be irrigated once a week. Particular attention should be paid to watering during flowering and during fruit ovary - the ground should be moist, but the water should not stagnate, otherwise the root neck will begin to rot and the bush may die. Water directly under the root, avoiding water on the foliage.
Variety Cossack, according to the description of breeders, is resistant to powdery mildew (spherotek), but there is a potential danger of invasion of raspberry insect pests or infection of plants with other, but no less dangerous diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatments in the spring, summer and autumn.
Gooseberries have a very early awakening process after winter. Therefore, treatment should be started immediately after the snow cover has melted. Strange as it may seem, water is the very first "assistant" in the early spring in the fight against pests and diseases. You need to boil water, pour it into a watering can and pour bushes on top, not forgetting to cultivate the ground under them. Then it is necessary to cover the soil across the width of the bush with something dense - cardboard, ruberoid, etc. This will not allow the larvae of harmful insects to get out - they will remain underground and die.Chemical Processing:
- before starting sap flow, it is necessary to spray with fungicides and insecticides;
- when the buds swell - spray the plants with Bordeaux liquid and treat them with acaricides from caterpillars and ticks;
- before flowering, treat again with the above drug;
- after flowering, aphid treatment is performed.
In the summer period, preventive spraying from diseases and insect pests is necessary, but it is not necessary to use "chemistry", but folk remedies and biological products.
So that the fruits of Cossack are not crushed (which sometimes happens in this variety), he needs fertile soil. For this:
- immediately after harvesting, fertilizers with potassium, phosphorus and organics must be applied;
- stage-by-stage feeding is necessary in the spring - for the first time mineral additives are introduced in the early spring, humus can be used;
- during the sap flow, you can once again feed with humus, bird droppings and nitrogen fertilizers;
- Once again, the plants are fertilized after flowering with mineral additives.
Important! Nitrogen mineral dressings are applied exclusively in the spring, in the fall they fertilize the bushes with organic additives.
Trimming bushes to prevent and rejuvenate the planting. Preventive pruning and bush formation should be carried out in the spring. It should be remembered that gooseberries are a plant with early vegetation processes, it is important to have time to carry out the procedure before the start of active sap flow. Dry, old branches damaged during the winter are cut. Last year's shoots are shortened by 20-30 cm, leaving 3/4 of the length.In the summer, dried up and with signs of disease processes are removed. After harvesting, part of the branches are cut. In the autumn, they thoroughly inspect the bushes, cut weak shoots, cut excess shoots so that the planting is not too thick. If the branch began to give a bad harvest with small fruits, then it is cut to the root. After autumn pruning, only strong, healthy stems of various ages should remain.
Bushes of the Cossack are very spreading, which complicates the collection of berries and care of the bush. Therefore, for it you need to build a support. For this, wooden pegs, metal rods or pipes are suitable.They are driven along the perimeter of the bush, a wire or twine is pulled on them and branches are fixed (you can use clothespins or tie up with any improvised materials).
Did you know? In Russia, it was believed that a gooseberry branch with berries under the threshold of the house protects the home from thieves, fire and the evil eye.
There are various ways to reproduce gooseberries. But the simplest ones are reproduction by layering, cuttings or dividing the uterine bush.
Propagated by layering:
The method of reproduction by vertical layering:
- In early spring, before the start of the growing season, all old branches are removed from the bush.
- In young shoots, 2/3 of the length is cut.
- When new shoots reach 15–20 cm in length, the bush is spudded with earth, carefully filling the voids between the young shoots (the soil should cover half the height of the bush).
- In the summer period, fill the ground as shoots grow, monitor soil moisture, and top-dress.
- At the end of July, the tops of new shoots need to be cut by 10-15 cm.
- In the second half of September, separate the young shoots and transfer them to a permanent cultivation site.
- In early spring, when the earth warms slightly, but the buds have not yet begun to bloom, choose an arbitrary number of young strong branches from all sides of the bush.
- Make grooves 10 cm deep.
- Bend the shoots to the grooves, lay them on the ground, pinch the tops, immerse them in the soil.
- Attach to the ground with studs. Do not fall asleep with earth.
- When shoots (5 cm) grow on the layers, they need to be sprinkled with fruitful soil.
- When the young growth reaches 15 cm, they should be completely, to the very top, covered with wet soil.
- In the summer, it is necessary to rake the ground several times for layering, water it, feed it with superphosphate, nitrate, and potassium salt.
- If rapid growth is observed, then the processes need to be pinched.
In autumn, you can transplant, separating the formed plant from the bush.Way arcuate layering slightly different from the previous one:
- Layers are fixed to the ground only in the middle.
- Cover with humus immediately.
- The top is shortened, but not buried in the ground, but attached to a peg.
- In the summer, water abundantly, make top dressing (at least 2 times).
Autumn lay-offs are ready for transplanting.
Breeding combined cuttings. This is a green two-year process, part of which is already numb and is 3-4 cm from the entire length of the shoot. They are cut from the mother bush with the heel and immediately planted in soft, moist soil. After planting, make a hole with the sides, water and mulch humus.Gooseberry propagation scheme: a - by dividing the bush; b - cuttingsDivision of the mother bush propagated when it is necessary to maintain the variety or transplant the bush to a new place. A year before transhipment, rejuvenating pruning is carried out - all old branches are cut to the root. The following autumn, a bush is dug up, divided into several parts, and transplanted into previously prepared soil.
Diseases and Pests
Insects that cause significant damage to the culture:
- spider mite;
- gall midge.
Sawfly. The caterpillar of this insect hibernates in the ground near the roots. In spring, they come to the surface, attach to the bottom of the leaf plate and lay eggs. Then the lesions appear, and the leaf is completely destroyed.
The fight with the sawfly is in preventive measures.
- In autumn, fallen leaves and berries are removed from the ground.
- The earth needs to be dug up, turning layers.
- Trim old branches at the root.
- To process the earth with Bordeaux liquid.
- In spring, pour boiling water over the plant and the ground under it, cover with dense material.
- During budding and after flowering, spray bushes with insecticides.
If a lesion is detected, manually remove damaged leaves and berries. To process with biological products.
Spider mite. The pest hibernates on fallen leaves or underground near the root. He wakes up in early spring, settles on the lower part of the foliage and entangles it with a web. Leaves turn yellow and crumble.
To fight it is necessary:
In autumn, after harvesting and in the spring, before flowering, it is necessary to spray bushes with acaricides. The treatment with a decoction of wormwood helps well. To prepare it you need:
- 1/2 bucket of chopped wormwood with flowers pour 10 liters of water, leave for a day.
- Then boil the infusion for 30-40 minutes, cool, strain, dilute with water 1: 1, add 50 g of liquid soap.
The solution is ready to use.
Aphid. Her eggs hibernate on gooseberry branches. In the spring of them, larvae appear, they move to young leaves, shoots and quickly destroy them.
To fight effectively:
- In early spring, pour boiling water over the bush.
- If larvae are detected, treat the plant with insecticides.
- The further struggle is carried out only by folk methods, for example, 300 g of garlic are passed through a press, diluted in 10 l of water and treated with a plant.
Gallitsa. Winters in the soil. It affects, depending on the species, shoots and foliage.
To destroy it you need:
- In the autumn, cut off all damaged shoots, remove foliage and burn.
- Dig the soil and mulch with a thick layer of peat.
- Treat with insecticides in autumn and spring before flowering.
- During the growing season and in summer, use folk remedies.
In addition to insects, Cossack is affected by diseases such as rust and anthracnose. In early spring, it is necessary to spray plants with fungicides. In the autumn, remove and burn all plant debris. In the summer, when revealing diseases, treat plants with biological products.
An important step in the care of gooseberries is the autumn processing of shrubs.
At the end of October it is necessary:
- Trim bushes, remove all unnecessary branches - old, sick, damaged, dry. Leave 6 to 8 powerful healthy shoots.
- To clear the ground under the bush of the old mulching layer, remove leaves, fruits, branches and weed grass, burn everything outside the site.
- Loosen the soil about 7–10 cm deep, and fertilize with potassium and phosphorus.
- Abundantly moisten the soil under the bush - 10-12 liters, depending on the size of the bush.
- Put a layer of mulch (10 cm) - humus, sawdust, peat.
In winter, to snow under the bushes, and if the winter is not snowy, then you should cover the ground with insulation materials (lapnik, roofing material).
Harvesting and storage
For processing and transportation, it is necessary to collect slightly immature gooseberries. It has already acquired a plum color, but still quite hard and sour. Until full maturity there is a minimum of 10 days. Such fruits in a cool, ventilated room can be stored for up to 10-12 days. At zero temperature - about a month.
For fresh consumption, you need to pick berries of almost black color, they are sweet and tasty, and they are stored 3-5 days in a cool place. Harvest must be in dry weather, immediately in the container in which it will be stored. It is worth stopping watering 10-15 days before the harvest, so the berries will not crack.
This variety has more advantages than disadvantages - it winters well and is not afraid of drought, it is resistant to diseases, has a great taste. Gooseberry Cossack will delight you with fragrant, healthy berries and a plentiful harvest - you should pay a little attention to it.
The taste and size of the berries are nothing special - they are worse. Not very scratchy - they are worse. The good news is that it grows strongly and without disease. Of the four varieties planted in one place, in terms of growth power in the first place. The result is an ordinary normal variety, without special disadvantages and advantages. I got it the earliest of all.